(2) The Federal Republic of Nigeria shall not be governed, nor shall any persons (3) If any other law is inconsistent with the provisions of this Constitution, this. Persons born outside Nigeria after 30th September, . Nigeria and, subject to the provisions of section 4 of this Constitution, if any other law ( including. Supremacy of constitution. 2. The Federal Republic of. Nigeria. 3. States of the Federation and the. Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Part II. Powers of the Federal.
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And to provide for a Constitution for the purpose of promoting the good (1) The Federal Republic of Nigeria shall be a State based on the principles of. (1) Subject to the provisions of section 28 of this Constitution, a person to whom the provisions of this section apply may be registered as a citizen of Nigeria. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA. THE CONSTITUTION. OF THE. FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF NIGERIA. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7 .
Jurisdiction and Access 1 Notwithstanding anything to the contained in this Constitution and in addition to such other jurisdiction as may be conferred upon it by an Act of the National Assembly, the Federal High Court shall have and exercise jurisdiction to the exclusion of any other court in civil causes and matters — … q subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the operation and interpretation of this Constitution in so far as it affects the Federal Government or any of its agencies; … Sec.
Jurisdiction and Access 1 Where any question as to the interpretation or application of this Constitution arises in any proceedings in any court of law in any part of Nigeria other than in the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, the Federal High Court or a High Court and the court is of the opinion that the question involves a substantial question of law, the court may, and shall if any of the parties to the proceedings so requests, refer the question to the Federal High Court or a High Court having jurisdiction in that part of Nigeria and the Federal High Court or the High Court shall a if it is of opinion that the question involves a substantial question of law, refer the question to the Court of Appeal; or b if it is of opinion that the question does not involve a substantial question of law, remit the question to the court that made the reference to be disposed of in accordance with such directions as the Federal High Court or the High Court may think fit to give.
Education 1 Government shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are equal and adequate educational opportunities at all levels. Employment Rights and Protection 3 The State shall direct its policy towards ensuring that- a all citizens, without discrimination on any group whatsoever, have the opportunity for securing adequate means of livelihood as well as adequate opportunity to secure suitable employment; b conditions of work are just and humane, and that there are adequate facilities for leisure and for social, religious and cultural life; c the health, safety and welfare of all persons in employment are safeguarded and not endangered or abused; … e there is equal pay for equal work without discrimination on account of sex, or on any other ground whatsoever; … Sec.
Employment Rights and Protection Equality and Non-Discrimination … And to provide for a Constitution for the purpose of promoting the good government and welfare of all persons in our country, on the principles of freedom, equality and justice, and for the purpose of consolidating the unity of our people … Preamble.
Equality and Non-Discrimination 1 A citizen of Nigeria of a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion shall not, by reason only that he is such a person: Obligations of Private Parties It shall be the duty of every citizen to — … c respect the dignity of other citizens and the rights and legitimate interests of others and live in unity and harmony and in the spirit of common brotherhood; … Sec.
Judicial Protection 6 The judicial powers vested in accordance with the foregoing provisions of this section — … b shall extend, to all matters between persons, or between government or authority and to any persons in Nigeria, and to all actions and proceedings relating thereto, for the determination of any question as to the civil rights and obligations of that person; … Sec.
Judicial Protection 1 Any person who alleges that any of the provisions of this Chapter has been, is being or likely to be contravened in any State in relation to him may apply to a High Court in that State for redress. Judicial Protection 2 An appeal shall lie from the decisions of the Court of Appeal to the Supreme Court as of right in the following cases- … c decisions in any civil or criminal proceedings on questions as to whether any of the provisions of Chapter IV 5 of this Constitution has been, is being or is likely to be, contravened in relation to any person; … Sec.
Judicial Protection 1 An appeal shall lie from decisions of the Federal High Court or a High Court to the Court of Appeal as of right in the following cases - … d decisions in any civil or criminal proceedings on questions as to whether any of the provisions of Chapter IV 7 of this Constitution has been, is being or is likely to be, contravened in relation to any person; … Sec.
Marriage and Family Life 3 For the purpose of promoting national integration, it shall be the duty of the State to: Marriage and Family Life 3 The State shall direct its policy towards ensuring that- … h the evolution and promotion of family life is encouraged. Marriage and Family Life 1 An appeal shall lie from decisions of the Federal High Court or a High Court to the Court of Appeal as of right in the following cases — … f decisions made or given by the Federal High Court or a High Court — … iv in the case of a decree nisi in a matrimonial cause or a decision in an admiralty action determining liability, … 2 Nothing in this section shall confer any of appeal — … b from an order absolute for the dissolution or nullity of marriage in favour of any party who, having had time and opportunity to appeal from the decree nisi on which the order was founded, has not appealed from that decree nisi; … Sec.
Marriage and Family Life 1 The Sharia Court of Appeal shall, in addition to such other jurisdiction as may be conferred upon it by an Act of the National Assembly, exercise such appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of Islamic personal law. Marriage and Family Life 1 The sharia Court of Appeal of a State shall, in addition to such other jurisdiction as may be conferred upon it by the law of the State, exercise such appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of Islamic personal Law which the court is competent to decide in accordance with the provisions of subsection 2 of this section.
Marriage and Family Life Marriage and Family Life 1. Participation in Public Life and Institutions 1 A citizen of Nigeria of a particular community, ethnic group, place of origin, sex, religion or political opinion shall not, by reason only that he is such a person: Political Rights and Association 4 The Government of a State shall ensure that every person who is entitled to vote or be voted for at an election to House of Assembly shall have the right to vote or be voted for at an election to a local government council.
Political Rights and Association Every person shall be entitled to assemble freely and associate with other persons, and in particular he may form or belong to any political party, trade union or any other association for the protection of his interests: Political Rights and Association 2 Every citizen of Nigeria, who has attained the age of eighteen years residing in Nigeria at the time of the registration of voters for purposes of election to a legislative house, shall be entitled to be registered as a voter for that election.
Political Parties No association by whatever name called shall function as a party, unless - … b the membership of the association is open to every citizen of Nigeria irrespective of his place of origin, circumstance of birth, sex, religion or ethnic grouping; … e the name of the association, its symbol or logo does not contain any ethnic or religious connotation or give the appearance that the activities of the association are confined to a part only of the geographical area of Nigeria; … Sec.
Electoral Bodies The registration of voters and the conduct of elections shall be subject to the direction and supervision of Independent National Electoral Commission. Head of State 1 There shall be for the Federation a President. Head of State A person shall be qualified for election to the office of the President if - a he is a citizen of Nigeria by birth; b he has attained the age of forty years; c he is a member of a political party and is sponsored by that political party; and d he has been educated up to at least School Certificate level or its equivalent.
Vice-President A person shall be qualified for election to the office of the President if - a he is a citizen of Nigeria by birth; b he has attained the age of forty years; c he is a member of a political party and is sponsored by that political party; and d he has been educated up to at least School Certificate level or its equivalent. Vice-President 1 In any election to which the foregoing provisions of this Part of this Chapter relate, a candidate for an election to the office of President shall not be deemed to be validly nominated unless he nominates another candidate as his associate from the same political party for his running for the office of President, who is to occupy the office of Vice-President and that candidate shall be deemed to have been duly elected to the office of Vice-President if the candidate for an election to the office of President who nominated him as such associate is duly elected as President in accordance with the provisions aforesaid.
Government 3 The composition of the Government of the Federation or any of its agencies and the conduct of its affairs shall be carried out in such a manner as to reflect the federal character of Nigeria and the need to promote national unity, and also to command national loyalty, thereby ensuring that there shall be no predominance of persons from a few State or from a few ethnic or other sectional groups in that Government or in any of its agencies.
Government 1 There shall be such offices of Ministers of the Government of the Federation as may be established by the President. Legislature 1 Subject to the provisions of section 66 of this Constitution, a person shall be qualified for election as a member of: Legislature 1 Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, every Senatorial district or Federal constituency established in accordance with the provisions of this Part of this Chapter shall return a member who shall be directly elected to the Senate or the House of Representatives in such manner as may be prescribed by an act of the National Assembly.
Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, every citizen of Nigeria shall have the right to acquire and own immovable property anywhere in Nigeria. Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure 1 The Sharia Court of Appeal shall, in addition to such other jurisdiction as may be conferred upon it by an Act of the National Assembly, exercise such appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of Islamic personal law.
Property, Inheritance and Land Tenure 1 The sharia Court of Appeal of a State shall, in addition to such other jurisdiction as may be conferred upon it by the law of the State, exercise such appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of Islamic personal Law which the court is competent to decide in accordance with the provisions of subsection 2 of this section.
Protection from Violence 3 The State shall direct its policy towards ensuring that- … f children, young persons and the age are protected against any exploitation whatsoever, and against moral and material neglect; … Sec. Protection from Violence 1 Every individual is entitled to respect for the dignity of his person, and accordingly - a no person shall be subject to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment; b no person shall he held in slavery or servitude; and c no person shall be required to perform forced of compulsory labour.
Public Institutions and Services 1 The State shall, within the context of the ideals and objectives for which provisions are made in this Constitution. Status of the Constitution 1 This Constitution is supreme and its provisions shall have binding force on the authorities and persons throughout the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
Status of the Constitution It shall be the duty of every citizen to - a abide by this Constitution, respect its ideals and its institutions, … Sec.
Constitution of Nigeria
Status of International Law 1 No treaty between the Federation and any other country shall have the force of law to the extent to which any such treaty has been enacted into law by the National Assembly. Religious Law Religious Law 1 There shall be a Court of Appeal.
Religious Law 1 An appeal shall lie from decisions of a Sharia Court of Appeal to the Court of Appeal as of right in any civil proceedings before the Sharia Court of Appeal with respect to any question of Islamic personal law which the Sharia Court of Appeal is competent to decide. Religious Law 1 For the purpose of exercising any jurisdiction conferred upon it by this Constitution or any other law, the Court of Appeal shall be duly constituted if it consists of not less than three Justices of the Court of Appeal and in the case of appeals from - a a sharia Court of Appeal if it consists of not less than three Justices of the Court of Appeal learned in Islamic personal law; … Sec.
Religious Law 1 The Sharia Court of Appeal shall, in addition to such other jurisdiction as may be conferred upon it by an Act of the National Assembly, exercise such appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of Islamic personal law. Religious Law 1 The sharia Court of Appeal of a State shall, in addition to such other jurisdiction as may be conferred upon it by the law of the State, exercise such appellate and supervisory jurisdiction in civil proceedings involving questions of Islamic personal Law which the court is competent to decide in accordance with the provisions of subsection 2 of this section.
Customary Law The outcome of that conference was the Constitution , also known as the Lyttleton Constitution. Lagos was isolated from the control of any regional government, and made the Federal Capital Territory, with Ministers given specific portfolios. Southern Cameroon, which until this point was part of the larger Nigeria, was also granted autonomy.
Consequently in , the Western and Eastern regions stated their self-governance, while the North indicated their non-readiness at the time. Two years later, the North also stated their self-governance, setting the stage for the quest for accomplishing total independence of Nigeria. Nigeria got her political independence as a sovereign state in October 1, under the constitution, also known as the Independence Constitution.
A British order in Council promulgated the Constitution such that it would take effect as soon as the October Independence took effect. It would become the very first constitution of Nigeria as an independent sovereign country.
The constitution made provision for a Parliamentary system of Government, recognizing three 3 regions: The constitution also recognized the Privy Council, under Colonial British control, as the highest court of Appeal in Nigeria. These would be seen as significant shortcomings of the constitution, if Nigeria was to be truly considered as independent, and resolving them would lead to yet another constitution.
Also notable in the constitution is the increase of Senate membership from fourty four 44 to fifty six 56 members.
Similarly, the House of Representatives was also increased to three hundred and twelve members from three hundred and five These increases were the direct result of the creation of Mid-Western State. In , a A violent military coup d'etat ushered in military dictatorship for the fist time in Nigeria, and the constitution was therefore abolished.
Another violent military counter coup, same year, toppled the Aguiyi Ironsi military and produced General Gowon as the Head of State. Some communal groups has been exploited and suppressed by other dominant groups. Related to this, is the problem of the oil producing communities where there exist resentments about distribution of oil revenues and under development of such communities.
For example, the Niger Delta minority illustrates the point very well. There have been struggles and calls for compensation for environmental degradation and hazards caused by oil exploration, economic empowerment and development for the communities, increased allocation of federally collected revenue to the states and communities based on the principle of derivation and greater political and fiscal autonomy.
This have gone to the extent of the oil producing communities pressing for the amendment of the Nigeria Constitution with a view to reviewing the ownership and control structure of the mineral resources in the country and the formula for sharing in the minerals wealth which will be in their favour According to Saro-Wiwa63, the formula will make for a more equal federation to which more people will owe loyalty because they see themselves represented meaningfully therein.
This though, being non-justiciable provides some frameworks by which citizen are to live, requiring the governments and its machineries to refrain from doing things in a certain way. This Commission is established by Section 1 c of the Constitution and is further provided in the Third Schedule Part I to the Constitution as amended.
The Commission is empowered to work out an equitable formula for the distribution of all cadres of posts; to monitor, promote and enforce compliance with the principles of proportional sharing of posts at all levels of government; and to take measures to prosecute heads of any government ministry, body or agency who fail to comply with the formula. The inefficiency of the Federal Character Commission to implement the provisions of the federal character principle is obvious, going by the inequalities or imbalance and marginalization witnessed in the political, cultural and socio- economic sectors of the country.
Furthermore, the federal character principles has been manipulated by and channeled to serve the overall interest of the bourgeois class. Under the guise of the federal character principle, the members of the bourgeois class get themselves entrenched in power and exercise control over the machinery of state.
Gboyega64 rightly observed that it is an elite ploy which would not materially improve the lot of the downtrodden in whose name it is raised.
Under these circumstances, there is bound to be acrimony and socio-eco- nomic conflict between the haves represented by the ruling elite class and they have not represented by the masses. Unless the interests of the masses are taken care of in the application of the federal character principle, in such a way, that they have access to the basic necessities of life, the formula is bound to have little or no relevance to the integration problems of Nigeria.
Unfortunately, also, this principle while stressing the imperative of ethnic-balancing invariably enthrones ethnicity and de-emphasizes the Nation statehood. In the process, it strengthens the parochial, particularistic orientations and primordial ethnic attachments of Nigerians As a result, the federal character principle has deepened the problem it was devised to tackle Materialism The placing of money as the ultimate achievement to be fulfilled by the elected leaders and citizenry has resulted in the excessive pursuit of material wealth at any cost including compromising the federal principles.
For instance, several probe reports and policy executions have shown that the ultimate goal in executing many federal and state projects is to make personal profits by some officials of the federal and state governments. This has been clearly shown by the recent exposure and recoveries of huge sums of money and confiscation of properties of past leaders, both at the Federal, State and even Local levels.
Public servants and officials in governmental institutions such as ministries, agencies, departments and corporations are not free either from the menace of corrupt practices that undermine the common goals of a Federal State. Corruption in Nigeria is traceable to the advent of military in the Nigerian political life.
Having entered the stronghold of power through unconstitutional and corrupt means, the military men in power sought to hold on to power at all cost. Since their rule was perceived to be unconstitutional, they sought ways of legitimizing their reign and by so doing looked towards the law courts to achieve what the barrels of their guns could never achieve for them. The military further introduced corruption to the police force, the government ministries and parastatals.
Poverty Finally the issue of democracy and political participation lies not merely in the provisions in the constitutions but in the actual working of the constitution. It must be noted that in any political community where the barest essentials of life are absent, where food, health, and shelter are available below subsistence level that, citizens will be so pre-occupied with how to get these essentials that they may not bother about who governs or whether or not political actors play the game according to the rules.
Political life will tend to be more individualistic than collectivistic. On the other hand, in a federal state like Nigeria, where these essentials are to be available in a lope sided manner, the units that are relatively in abject want will tend to be apolitical, apathetic and negative in their supportive responses. The founding fathers of the United States wisely interpreted liberty widely to include freedom from overbearing governmental executive.
However, most constitutional scholars are in agreement that liberty includes the freedom from ignorance, poverty and disease. It was for the realization of such a society that the US government enacted the Economic Act of The Act states by its preamble; The united states can achieve its full economic and social potential as a nation only if every individual has the opportunity to contribute to the full extent of his capabilities and to participate in the working of our society.
It is therefore the policy of the United States to eliminate the paradox of poverty in the midst of plenty in the nation by opening to everyone the opportunity for education and training, the opportunity to work and the opportunity to live in decency and dignity Nigeria is a country replete with extreme underdevelopment in the areas of education, health, shelter, food, welfare to mention but few.
If the Nigerian nation could embark on a massive industrialization, and welfare schemes, problems associated with poverty and want, ignorance and disease will likely reduce to the minimum. Election expenses will drastically come down and campaigns will cease from being life and death struggle to project ethnic identities but a process of choosing citizens capable of formulating and executing policies that will reflect national objectives.
When politics is no longer seen as a way of making a living by foul or fair means, or as a chance for imposing the whims and caprices of one ethnic group on another, but as a way of rendering selfless services to the country, the tendency to clinch to political position in defiance of public opinion will be eroded to ensure survival of democracy.
Recommendations Despite the obvious shortcomings surrounding the practice of federalism in Nigeria, there seems the general acceptance of the fact that federalism is the best system of government suitable for the country.
We need to focus on the critical issues that make federalism to move or that challenge people to work and govern well under a truly federal system. The dominant discussion of Nigeria Federalism is commonly summarized and dismissed in one sentence; Nigeria is a product of conquest and domination and in that case true federalism does not apply to it.
While we agreed that colonialism was an aberration; I however do not subscribe to the view that our differences are irreconcilable, such that we cannot live under one federal system. However, how we live and what we do as federating units is what determines the strength of our federal practice.
The all surpassing need for constitutional changes cannot be overemphasised. I have therefore, suggested the following constitutional changes; these suggested constitutional changes are supposed to address both directly and otherwise the challenges associated with Nigerian federalism.
Therefore the existence or creation of a state shall be determined by a minimum amount or percentage of revenue each can produce. Component states that cannot produce enough should be subsumed into a more viable one. Tax over these resources shall however be made by the States to the Federal Government. Such constitutional amendment will be in line with Fiscal federalism and at the same time put an end to the constant agitation of the oil hosting states and communities.
Let every community control every mineral resources under their land, lease it to the state government and vice versa depending on the applicable tradition in the area.
Issues of land tenure, land use and control should all be left to the States. The current hue and cry over local government creation by the Federal government arises essentially from the fact that they feel it will affect revenue formula and structure of allocation of seats to the Federal legislature. This ought not to be the case if local governments are made purely state affairs. Their activities will be of no consequences for the federal government and polities such as delimitation of federal constituency at the federal level.
Everything relating to their management and supervision should be left to the State government. In fact Fiscal Federalism entails that states shall manage and control local governments. However, to ease and assist the less economically viable states, there shall be provided a common pool into which shall be paid certain agreed percentage royalty from the proceed of natural resource from the mineral or natural resources producing units of the federation. This pool shall be managed by the Federal Government and shall be distributed to the states or units according to their various needs and or including other conditions as may be determined by the National Assembly.
Removal of immunity clause will ensure responsible government. With state constitution it is easy for a state to define matters that are peculiar to it, socially, spiritually, economically and finds ways to addressing them. A state that wishes to have the second generation rights on its Constitution and makes them justiceable can do so. At present, the Federal Constitution is too general and inapplicable in many instances at the state level. It concentrates too many responsibilities in the Federal Government, giving states very few and as such equally giving them an escape route.
State Constitution will encourage citizens to become more concerned about what is happening to their state revenue and more appreciative of state promises rather than federal government taking unjust share of revenue, hence all they have is a token for salary and they claim they are unable as such to do much for the people. With state constitution, citizens will think more of how to devise laws that will protect them from bad governance and mismanagement of their resources.
State constitution is in line with true federalism. Part of the problem arising from the waste, corruption, mismanagement and squander that had characterized various agencies of government is because the National Assembly had not performed strict oversight role over them. At present many of these agencies feel that they are only accountable to the presidency, partly due to the fact that their heads are appointees of the President.
Ancillary to this is the judiciary. It is only an effective judiciary that can ensure a true democratic government.
Democracy in turn ensures good governance and development. A constitutional amendment strengthening the independent of the judiciary is advocated. Not only shall NASS approve all major appointment of the president, NASS shall also have constitutionally power to remove any erring appointee of the President where the later refuses to do so.
Conclusion Federalism as a form of government is best suited for a pluralistic and multicultural society like Nigeria. Its purpose is to enable each group free from interference or control by the others, to govern itself in matters of local concern, leaving matters of common interest to be managed centrally, and those which are of both local and national concern to be administered concurrently.
By this, the differing interests and circumstances of the component groups are accommodated while at the same time securing the peace and stability of the country and its survival against the forces of division and conflict inherent in the heterogeneous nature of the society. Whilst federalism has brought several nations within the Nigerian polity to- gether, actual federal practice has hardly been able to keep them together happily.
To all appearances, political restructuring in a federal polity like Nigeria is needed to achieve certain specific objectives. First, restructuring is meant to serve as a steering mechanism to properly give focus and locus to attempts at collective identity and distributive polities.
The aim is to correct perceived structural defects and institutional deformities.
Second, political restructuring is intended to lay an institutional foundation for a more just and a more equitable sharing of the political space by multinational groups cohabiting in a federal polity, this strategic objective seems to be the solidifying or perhaps merely engendering of a sense of national community. Perhaps among others, the more compelling need to revise the Constitution is with regard to the pooling together of the resources of the federation under the Federal Government and the distribution of the resources subsequently.
As has already been indicated, the essential feature of every federal polity is the distribution of sovereign powers, resources inclusive between the central authority and the constituent units.
102/93 Constitutional Rights Project / Nigeria
Nigerian federalism requires fundamental rethinking and indeed, revision. The revision should entail the assertion by the nationality stakeholders of the federation as reflected in their cumulative experiences since the federal system was formally established by the Lyttleton Constitution.
Revision implies freedom for the nationality stakeholders to negotiate new foundations for the system such as: Nigeria should have a new constitution necessary and appropriate for a new restructured federal system, in the sense that the new constitution shall be drafted by democratically elected representatives by Nigerians.
The provisions and ideals of the proposed constitution must be given wide publicity thereby giving Nigerians adequate opportunity to study the proposed constitution. This will help to achieve the desired consensus and respect.
There remains a pressing need for a genuine and fundamental restructuring and transformation of our society so as to favour unity against diversity and also to guard against control of the centre by any one of the ethnic groups. Bearing in mind the exigencies of government, this is, taking into consideration, the peculiarities, history, eccentricities of the local conditions of the country fashioning out the constitution which shall incorporate the principle of co-operation and comity.
In a multi-ethnically segmented state such as Nigeria, with very complex social and economic problem, the only solution and way forward is to adopt true federalism.The outcome of that conference was the Constitution, also known as the Lyttleton Constitution.
Another military coup in , by General Muhammadu Buhari and Tunde Idiagbon, toppled the democratically elected civilian administration of the second Republic, and once again, ushered in another military dictatorship. The inefficiency of the Federal Character Commission to implement the provisions of the federal character principle is obvious, going by the inequalities or imbalance and marginalization witnessed in the political, cultural and socio- economic sectors of the country.
Nigerian Constitution and the Challenges to the Practice of Federalism Following the provisions of section 2 1 , 3 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria; Nigeria is a federation consisting of thirty six states and a Federal Capital Territory.
Contact Us. An amendment procedure such as in the case of state or additional local government creation, which requires input from the affected states or local government councils as the case may be will surely deny legitimate demand from a group for additional states or local government councils. The Nigerian Federation has always had peculiar features; the most evident being that it was not created by the coming together of separate states but was the result of the subdivision of a country which had in theory been ruled as a single unit Powers of Government: The powers of the government of Nigeria are divided into the three organs across the tiers of government.
The conference drafted the terms of a new constitution. Thus, to amend any provision of the Nigerian Constitution, it is not only that votes of at least two-thirds majority of members of the House of Representatives and the Senate National Assembly 22 must support such proposal, the amendment must be approved by resolution of not less than twenty-four 24 State Houses of Assembly out of the present thirty-six 36 States of the Federation.