Routledge English Language Introductionscover core areas of language study and are one-stop resources for students. Assuming no prior knowledge, books in . Practical Phonetics and Phonology: presents the essentials of the subject in a lively way whilst stressing the day-to-day applications of phonetics and phonology. PRACTICAL PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY Third Edition A resource book for students BEVERLEY COLLINS AND INGER M. MEES 2 INTRODUCTION A1.
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Two words of this kind distinguished by a single sound are called a minimal pair. Activity J 5 Answers on website Make minimal pairs in English by changing the initial consonant in these words: In addition to pan, we could also produce, for exam- ple, ban, tan, ran, etc.
A set of words distinguished in this way is termed a minimal set. Instead of changing the initial consonant, we can change the vowel, e.
We can also change the final consonant, giving yet a third minimal set: Through such processes, we can eventually determine those speech sounds which are phono- logically significant in a given language. The contrastive units of sound which can be used to change meaning are termed phonemes.
But not every small difference that can be heard between one sound and another is enough to change the meaning of words.
There is a certain degree of variation in each phoneme which is sometimes very easy to hear and can be quite striking. Try to describe what you hear. Is there an obvious t-sound articulated by the tongue-tip against the teeth-ridge? And is it the same with similar words, like kitten, cotton, and Britain?
Each phoneme is therefore really composed of a number of different sounds which are interpreted as one meaningful unit by a native speaker of the language. This range is termed allophonic variation, and the variants themselves are called allophones.
Only the allophones of a phoneme can exist in reality as concrete entities. Allophones are real — they can be recorded, stored and reproduced, and analysed in acoustic or articulatory terms. Although each phoneme includes a range of variation, the allophones of any single phoneme generally have considerable phonetic similarity in both acoustic and articulat- ory terms; that is to say, the allophones of any given phoneme: We can now proceed to a working definition of the phoneme as: Problems may sometimes arise, but they are typically few, since broadly the phoneme systems will be largely similar.
Difficulties occur for the non-native learner, however, because there are always import- ant differences between the phoneme system of one language and that of another. Take the example of an English native speaker learning French.
This effect can be represented as follows using the symbol [ — ] to mean contrasts with: German students of English have to learn to make a contrast between mouth and mouse. We all interpret the sounds of language we hear in terms of the phonemes of our mother tongue and there are many rather surprising examples of this. So non-natives must learn to interpret the sound system of English as heard by English native speakers and ignore the perceptions imposed by years of speaking and listening to their own language.
Any English person learn- ing a foreign language will have to undertake the same process in reverse. Table A2. They are represented by a single symbol, e. They are rep- resented by a symbol plus a length mark i, e. Note that all vowels may be shortened owing to pre-fortis clipping see p.
The effect is most noticeable with free steady-state vowels and diphthongs. In Table A2.
Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students [With CD (Audio)]
Keywords are shown in small capitals thus: For instance, if native speakers of English are asked how many syllables there are in the word potato they usually have little doubt that there are three even if for certain words, e. A syllable can be defined very loosely as a unit larger than the phoneme but smaller than the word. Phonemes can be regarded as the basic phonological elements.
Above the phoneme, we can consider units larger in extent, namely the syllable and the word. Syllabic consonants Typically, every syllable contains a vowel at its nucleus, and may have one or more con- sonants either side of this vowel at its margins.
However, certain consonants are also able to act as the nuclear elements of syllables. Such consonants are termed syllabic consonants, and are shown by a little vertical mark [C] placed beneath the symbol concerned.
It is especially useful for languages like English or French which have inconsistent spellings. See Section C6 for the same phenomenon in French. Now try doing the same thing in reverse. See if you can find a number of different pronunciations for 1 the vowel letters o and a and 2 the con- sonant letters c and g.
Finally, a rather tougher question.
One of the English checked vowel sounds is virtually always represented by the same single letter in spelling. Can you work out which sound it is? If you need more help, turn to p. We can distinguish between phonetic and phonemic transcription. A phonetic transcription can indicate minute details of the articulation of any particular sound by the use of differently shaped symbols, e. In contrast, a phonemic transcription shows only the phoneme contrasts and does not tell us precisely what the realisations of the phoneme are.
In many word-final contexts, as in eat this, we are more likely to have [t] with an accompanying glottal stop, sym- bolised thus: Both the phonetic and phonemic forms of transcription have their own specific uses.
Phonemic transcription may at first sight appear less complex, but it is in reality a far more sophisticated system, since it requires from the reader a good knowledge of the language concerned; it eliminates superfluous detail and retains only the informa- tion essential to meaning. Even in a phonetic transcription, however, we generally show only a very small proportion of the phonetic variation that occurs, often only the most significant phonetic feature of a particular context.
For instance, the difference in the pronunciation of the two r-sounds in retreat could be shown thus: Once we introduce a single phonetic symbol or diacritic then the whole transcription needs to be enclosed in square and not slant brackets. You can think of homophones as sound-alikes and homographs as look-alikes Carney Homophones Homophones are words which sound the same but are written differently.
Thanks to the irregularity of its spelling, there are countless examples in English, for instance bear — bare; meat — meet; some — sum; sent — scent.
Homophones also exist in other languages see p. Can you say why? Activity J 8 Answers on website The following spelling errors would be impossible for most computer spelling checkers to deal with. Supply a suitable homophone to correct each of the sentences. Note that homophones may vary from one English accent to another.
To give one common example, in rhotic accents see p. For more information on types of accent variation see Sections C1—C4.
English has far fewer homographs than homophones. Here are two common pairs, with a phonemic transcription, and the meaning: Fill in the appropriate meanings one example has been done for you.
To help you, here are a number of brief definitions to choose from: Phonemic transcription allows us to indicate these features with a degree of precision that is impossible to capture with traditional spelling.
As such, it is an essential skill for phoneticians. In the next section of this chapter after learning about some features of connected speech you too will get to acquire this very useful ability. When an English poly- syllabic word is said in its citation form i. Experienced teachers of English and beginning students will all profit from this book. I am delighted to wel- come this new and extended edition.
Our undergraduate students already valued its accessibility, clarity of description and detailed coverage of English accents.
The addition of further descriptions of languages other than English and in-depth discussion of issues in pronunciation teaching make the book highly recom- mended reading for our postgraduate students in linguistics and English language teaching, too. It is an excellent combination of theory and practice, with abundant resources and practice material both written and spoken, covering a large number of English accents and including outlines of some major languages.
Presented in direct and easy-to-follow language, with first-rate diagrams and illustrations, it allows readers to study the subject as if they were attending a series of interesting lectures.
The book is carefully planned, diligently structured and clearly written. Add to Cart. Routledge English Language Introductions cover core areas of language study and are one-stop resources for students. Assuming no prior knowledge, books in the series offer an accessible overview of the subject, with activities, study questions, sample analyses, commentaries and key readings—all in the same volume.
Each topic can also be read across these sections, enabling the reader to build gradually on the knowledge gained. Written by authors who are experienced teachers and researchers, this best-selling textbook will appeal to all students of English language and linguistics and those training for a certificate in TEFL.
Our undergraduate students already valued its accessibility, clarity of description and detailed coverage of English accents. The addition of further descriptions of languages other than English and in-depth discussion of issues in pronunciation teaching make the book highly recommended reading for our postgraduate students in linguistics and English language teaching, too.
It is an excellent combination of theory and practice, with abundant resources and practice material both written and spoken, covering a large number of English accents and including outlines of some major languages. Presented in direct and easy-to-follow language, with first-rate diagrams and illustrations, it allows readers to study the subject as if they were attending a series of interesting lectures.
This new edition is going to be a 'must' for all students of phonetics and phonology. The book is carefully planned, diligently structured and clearly written.
The contents are up-to-date; they are geared to the needs of newcomers to phonetics and phonology.Finally, we have to remember that while there are so many different world varieties of English, they are essentially at least in their standard forms very similar. Pronunciation worries David Crystal 4. Fill in the appropriate meanings one example has been done for you.
We could go on, but these examples are enough to illustrate that each language selects a limited range of sounds from the total possibilities of human speech.
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Covert associations of speech sound Steven Pinker 7. He is presently a member of the Leiden University Centre for Linguistics. Naomi Okhae rated it really liked it Sep 23,
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