'(The Sea ; Around Us Rachel Carson * * * FIRST PUBLISHED THE SEA AROUND US tells the strange and exciting story of the seas, how they came into . National Book Award Winner and New York Times Bestseller: Explore earth's most precious, mysterious resource—the ocean—with the author of Silent Spring. The Sea Around Us Download Full PDF Here abtresdeorebgolf.tk; 4. ISBN: Author: Rachel. Carson Download Here abtresdeorebgolf.tk
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About Books [READ PDF] The Sea Around Us (Oxford University Press Paperback) by Rachel Carson ePUB: The Sea Around Us Creator. Editorial Reviews. Review. “[Carson has] a rare gift for transmuting scientific fact into lucid, download The Sea Around Us: Read Books Reviews - abtresdeorebgolf.tk The Sea Around Us, ,. A fifteen year retrospective. Daniel Pauly and Dirk Zeller. Sea Around Us, Fisheries Centre,. The University of British Columbia.
Although direct em pirical evidence for biological responses of sharks to clim ate and ocean changes are lacking, there are num erous studies on responses of m arine bony fishes Osteichthyes and invertebrates to these changes. The m ain biological responses include shift in distribution, changes in phenology, and changes in body size and other related life history characteristics such as length at m aturity see reviews by Cheung et al.
These biological responses are determ ined by fundam ental theories of biology and ecology, including 1 oxygen- and capacity- lim ited therm al tolerance; 2 m etabolic scaling and life-history theories; 3 ecological niche theory; and 4 predator-prey interactions. Since sharks, like other m arine fishes, are ectotherm s that obtain oxygen from gills, they are constrained by the sam e sets of biological and environm ental factors under the above fundam ental biological theories.
Thus, sharks are expected to respond to clim ate change sim ilarly to other m arine fishes and invertebrates. Integrating these fundam ental theories of biology and ecology through a modelling fram ework, Cheung et al.
As a result, distribution of sharks m ay expand to higher latitude regions. In contrast, in the tropics, shark abundance m ay decrease and som e species m ay becom e locally extinct Figure 7 Cheung et al. Som e pelagic sharks should be affected sim ilarly to other pelagic predatory fishes.
Moreover, changes in prim ary productivity are expected to affect the abundance and productivity of shark populations.
Based on the projections by Cheung et al. However, the increase in the latter case would depend on the sensitivity of ecosystem s in higher latitude regions to ocean acidification Cheung et al.
Projected im pacts on diversity of m arine fishes and invertebrates by 20 50 relative to 20 A, rate of species invasion, calculated from the number of newly occurring species relative to the original species richness; and B rate of species local extinction or loss, calculated from the number of locally extinct species relative to the original species richness under the SRES A1B scenario.
The analysis included 10 66 species of fishes and invertebrates. Redrawn from Cheung et al. Protective legislation is becom ing increasingly com mon worldwide, but due to loopholes, enforcem ent challenges, and lack of broad geographical coverage, it is probably inadequate to facilitate the recovery of m ost species. Additionally, the Sea Around Us Project is working to dem onstrate scientifically and rigorously the obvious fact that shark catches are m uch higher than statistics reported to FAO suggest.
As global tem peratures continue to rise as a result of global warm ing, sharks will undergo shifts in distribution, as well as changes in phenology and related life-history characteristics that are not yet well understood. It is likely that sharks will rem ain threatened as long as the dem and for shark fin soup in China continues to grow and global warm ing m odifies their habitats. Because sharks are highly vulnerable to and slow to recover from overfishing, there is an urgent need to protect them through the establishm ent of effective and well-enforced legislation over a wide range of m arine ecosystem s.
Laws and regulations that prohibit or limit shark fishing and the trade of shark products will be useful in ensuring the future sustainability of shark populations.
In cases where anti-finning laws are enacted, they should require fishers to land sharks with fins attached, rather than separate from the carcass. Also, species that are at high risk of extinction should be awarded special protection, and catch quotas should exist for all shark fisheries in order to end the unlim ited harvesting of sharks that occurs in som e areas. Because many shark species are highly m igratory and move between EEZs, there is a need for cooperation between countries in creating and enforcing new legislation to protect them.
In addition to shark-related legislation, both local and international Marine Protected Areas MPAs that are designated as shark sanctuaries can provide a safe zone where sharks can reproduce without the threat of being fished or finned.
Although it is known that m any shark species are im portant top predators at great risk of being overfished, their specific roles in different m arine ecosystem s are not well understood, so the resulting effects of decreasing shark populations on these ecosystem s are largely unknown. The Sea Around Us Project continued m eta-analyses of existing ecosystem m odels that include sharks will help us to better understand their role and the effects that their decline could potentially have on other m arine organism s This inform ation can provide im portant clues for im proving ecosystem m anagem ent in the future.
The im pacts of global warm ing and ocean acidification on sharks are also uncertain, but based on studies of other m arine fishes, the effects could be substantial, with tropical species m igrating poleward and into deeper waters. The appearance of previously absent shark species will affect these higher-latitude ecosystem s, as well as the lower-latitude ones they left behind, and will provide an interesting topic for further scientific investigation. Sea Around Us Project researchers are continuously working to identify and study the highest-quality sources of inform ation related to sharks.
It is our goal to identify gaps in existing data, and to fill in the blanks using creative and som etim es unconventional approaches. For this reason, we are able to see trends that m ight otherwise be overlooked and draw conclusions accordingly. We will use the results presented in this report and others to continue conducting research that will allow us to better understand the status of sharks, shape global m anagem ent policies, and protect the future of sharks and ocean biodiversity as a whole.
Kleisner, A. Cisneros, S.
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Booth, M. Coll and L. Huang for their suggestions regarding data compilation and statistical analysis. We also thank J. Meeuwig, I. Barem ore, S. Fowler, P. Horvat, F. Humber, A. Morgan, F. Hem ida, A. Soldo, A. Reijbroek, R. Govender, A. Gajic, A. Hore, T. Beatty, N. Sarginson, M. Nascim ento, A.
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A book for the beach: The Sea Around Us by Rachel Carson
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A book for the beach: The Sea Around Us by Rachel Carson
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The Sea Around Us
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Are you sure you want to Yes No. Be the first to like this. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book details Author: Rachel Carson Pages: Oxford Paperbacks Language: English ISBN If you want to download this book, click link in the last page 5. Click this link: You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.
Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Cancel Save.SlideShare Explore Search You. We present our results in form ats that are accessible and convenient for scientists to use. You just clipped your first slide! Based on the projections by Cheung et al. Variation in ratios between species is likely due to anatom ical differences, which indicates that species-specific fin to body weight ratios should be enforced in ratio-based regulations.
E-0 5 Re lative bio m as s Re lative bio m as s 0. Leah Biery, presently one of m y MSc students, who agreed to abandon her thesis work for the tim e it took to assem ble the m aterial contributed by her co-authors and to write the bulk of the connecting text that her Master thesis is about shark finning also helped. US Departm ent of Com m erce. But the sea, though changed in a sinister way, will continue to exist; the threat is rather to life itself.
Until recently, very little effort was placed on the m anagem ent of shark resources Barker and Schluessel, 20 0 5.